ʻO Testosterone maikaʻi loa (Test) pauka Manufacturer hale hana
ʻO AASraw ka mea hana loea o ka pauka steroid anabolic me ka lawe palekana!

Hāʻawi ʻo AASraw i nā ʻano o ka pauka testosterone esters me ka lako paʻa, hiki iā mākou ke hoʻouna aku i ka anabolic steroid raws i ka honua holoʻokoʻa, ʻoi aku hoʻi no USA, ʻEulopa, ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o ka lawelawe remail a he ʻano hoʻopuka home, palekana loa. Eia hou, hiki ke kākoʻo ʻia ke kauoha nui me ke kumu kūʻai hoʻokūkū.

ʻO ka hae Testosterone pauda03

E kūʻai aku i ka Testosterone Powder

He aha ke kuleana o nā ʻokoʻa Testosterone Esters i ke kino?

ʻO Testosterone kahi hormone steroid e kū maoli ana i loko o ke kino kanaka. Pono ka hormone testosterone no ka hoʻomohala kino o ke kino kāne a he nui nā hana ʻē aʻe, i hopena i ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka steroid anabolic e nā bodybuilders a me nā mea pāʻani.

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Punawai Haumana

PubMed Central

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1. Testosterone A me Bodybuilding History 

ʻO Testosterone he hormone steroid i loko o ke kino o ke kanaka a me ka makahiki, hoʻomaka ka emiʻana o ka testosterone i loko o ke kino. Hoʻopili pū ʻia kēia hāʻule ʻana me nā hopena ʻaoʻao, e like me ka nalowale o ka lauoho, ka nalowale o ka nui o ka ʻiʻo, a me ka emi ʻana o ka noʻonoʻo a me ke kino. He mea koʻikoʻi ka testosterone steroid hormone no kēia mau mea i ke kino, a ʻo ka ʻike maoli ka mea i alakaʻi ai i ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka testosterone exogenous ma ke ʻano he testosterone lapaʻau ma kahi mua. 

I ka makahiki 1899, ua hoʻomohala ʻo Kauka Brown-Sequard i Elixir of Life no nā kāne i hana ʻia me ke koko, ka hua, a me ka wai testicular i lawe ʻia mai nā ʻīlio a me nā puaʻa guinea. He ʻano ʻē paha kēia ma muli o ka holomua o ka lāʻau lapaʻau o kēia lā akā i ka makahiki 1899, he mea ʻike nui kēia. Ua hoʻāʻo ʻo Kauka Brown-Sequard i kēia concoction iā ia iho, me ka ʻike ʻana i ka hoʻomaikaʻi nui ʻana i kona olakino āpau a me kona ikaika. I ka hoʻolaha ʻana o ka ʻōlelo o ka holomua o Kauka Brown-Sequard me ka elixir e pili ana i ka testosterone holoholona, ​​​​ua hoʻomaka ka nui o nā kauka e hoʻohana i ka elixir. I ka hopena, ua kuhikuhi ʻia e nā kauka 12,000, no laila, e hoʻokaʻawale i ke ala no ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka testosterone. 

ʻOiai ua kūleʻa ka hui ʻana o Kauka Brown-Sequard ma muli o ka hopena o ka hormone steroid testosterone, ʻaʻole i kūkulu ʻia ka testosterone synthetic maoli a hiki i ka makahiki 1935, ma Kelemānia. ʻO ka hoʻohana nui o kēia testosterone synthetic no ka mālama ʻana i ke kaumaha a ʻo ia ka mea i hoʻohana ʻia ai, a hiki i ka 1954 Olympics. ʻAʻole ʻike ʻia ka manaʻo nui no ka hoʻohana hewa ʻana akā aia ma ka 1954 Olympics i hoʻomaka ai nā mea pāʻani e hōʻino i ka testosterone ma ke ʻano he anabolic steroid, no ka hana kino maikaʻi. 

ʻOiai ua hoʻomaka ka hoʻohana hewa ʻana i ka testosterone synthetic i ka makahiki 1954, ua kaupalena ʻia i nā mea pāʻani a hiki i ka 1980s i ka wā i hoʻohana ʻia ai ka testosterone ma ke ʻano he anabolic steroid i ka lehulehu pū kekahi. I kēia manawa, a hiki i kēia manawa, ʻoi aku ka nui o ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka testosterone e nā kāne ʻaʻole nā ​​mea pāʻani no ko lākou helehelena, ma mua o kā lākou hana kino. Hoʻohana ka lehulehu i ka testosterone a i ʻole steroids e hoʻomaikaʻi i ko lākou ʻiʻo nui, a ʻoi aku ka nui a ʻoi aku ka nui ma mua o ka hana maikaʻi ʻana i nā haʻuki. 

Ua ʻike ka lehulehu i ka hoʻomaikaʻi nui ʻana i kā lākou hana kino me ka testosterone exogenous. Ua ʻike lākou i ka hoʻomaikaʻi ʻana i ka nui o ka ʻiʻo lean, me ka emi ʻana o ka ʻeha o ka ʻiʻo ma hope o ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa a me kahi manawa hoʻōla holoʻokoʻa. ʻO kēia mau pōmaikaʻi āpau i alakaʻi i ka hoʻohana nui ʻana o ka testosterone ma ke ʻano he anabolic steroid e nā mea pāʻani a me nā bodybuilders.

ʻO ka hoʻohana nui ʻana o ka testosterone exogenous ka hopena i ka Congress i hoʻopuka i ka Anabolic Steroid Act o 1990 i ʻike ai i nā steroid anabolic ma ke ʻano he lāʻau lapaʻau no lākou iho a hoʻokomo iā lākou i ka papa inoa o nā mea hoʻomalu.

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2. He aha ka Testosterone a pehea e hana ʻia ai? 

ʻO Testosterone he hormone steroid i loaʻa i nā kāne a me nā wahine me nā kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe o nā kāne, ma mua o nā wahine. He hormone kāne kāne ke kuleana no ka hoʻomohala ʻana i nā hiʻohiʻona kāne kāne. Hana nui ʻia i loko o nā hōʻike, ua synthesized kēia hormone steroid mai ka cholesterol. ʻO ka mea nui kumu o ka testosterone ʻOkoʻa nā kāne a me nā wahine e like me ka hilinaʻi pinepine ʻana o nā wahine i nā kelepa adrenal a me ka ʻiʻo peripheral no ka testosterone synthesis akā ʻo ia ka mea i hana mua ʻia e nā testes i nā kāne. 

ʻO ka synthesis o ka testosterone, he steroid mai ka hui androstane, e pili ana i ka cholesterol a me ka hana o nā pūnaewele Leydig i nā testes. Ke hoʻohui ʻia, lawe ʻia i loko o ke koko e ka sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) a ma hope o ka hoʻohana ʻia ʻana, lawe ʻia i ke ake e wāwahi ʻia i loko o kāna mau metabolites hana ʻole. 

ʻO ka hae Testosterone pauda01

3. He aha nā pae Testosterone Ola?

Pono nā kāne olakino olakino e loaʻa nā pae testosterone ma ka laulā o 264 ng/dl a i 916 ng/dl. Hoʻohana wale ʻia kēia pae i nā kāne ʻaʻole momona i ka makahiki o 19 a hiki i 39 mau makahiki, a ʻo ka mean testosterone pae awelika ma 630 ng/dl. Ma waho o kēia, he 25 pakeneka wale nō ka testosterone ikaika a ma kahi o 2 pakeneka i ka 3 pakeneka he testosterone manuahi. 

Ana ʻia ka Testosterone me ka hoʻohana ʻana i ke ʻano Vermeulen i hoʻololi ʻia, kahi i ana ʻia ai ka testosterone i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i SHBG. ʻAʻohe ana i ka testosterone i hoʻopaʻa ʻia me ka albumin i loko o ke kahe koko akā ʻaʻole ia e ana i ka testosterone manuahi.

He mea nui e hoʻomaopopo i kēia pae kuhikuhi o nā pae testosterone ua hoʻopaʻapaʻa lōʻihi ʻia e nā kauka, me nā hoʻopiʻi nui me ka hopena haʻahaʻa o ka pae. Manaʻo nā kauka he haʻahaʻa loa ka 294 ng / dl a pili i ka hypogonadism a i ʻole nā ​​haʻahaʻa testosterone haʻahaʻa, ma mua o ka waiwai maʻamau. Akā, manaʻo lākou i ka hoʻohana ʻana o 350 ng/dl ma ke ʻano he ʻoki haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa e hana pololei ai ka pae kuhikuhi. Eia nō naʻe, ʻaʻole kēia he waiwai ʻoki ʻia a ʻae ʻia ka ʻoki ʻoki kūhelu i ka 294 ng/dl ʻoiai e noʻonoʻo paha kekahi mau haukapila pilikino i ka 350 ng/dl i kā lākou ʻoki ʻia. 

ʻO kekahi mea e noʻonoʻo ai i ka nānā ʻana i nā pae testosterone ʻo ia ka hoʻololi ʻana o ka hormone steroid i ka lā holoʻokoʻa, ʻo ia hoʻi he mea ʻokoʻa loa nā waiwai i ana ʻia i ke kakahiaka ma mua o nā waiwai i ana ʻia i ke ahiahi. ʻOi aku ka kiʻekiʻe o nā waiwai i ke kakahiaka i ka emi ʻana o nā pae o ka testosterone i ka lā a pau. 

Hoʻopili pū ʻia nā pae Testosterone i ka hoʻokuʻu ʻana o ka hormone hoʻokuʻu gonadotropin-releasing (GnRH) i hoʻokuʻu ʻia me ka rhythmically, ma ka awelika, i kēlā me kēia mau hola. Hiki ke ʻike ʻia kēia me ka fluctuation o nā pae testosterone a puni ka lā. 

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4. He mea like anei na Steroids a me Testosterone?

ʻAʻole like nā Testosterone a me nā steroids ʻoiai, ua like ko lākou mau mana, i kahi ākea. He mea nui e ʻimi i ka mea anabolic steroids ma mua o ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana iā lākou me ka testosterone. 

ʻO nā steroid anabolic-androgenic he mau mea likeʻole i loaʻa ka hopena like me ka hormone sex maoli, testosterone. ʻO kaʻoiaʻiʻo, he mau ʻano synthetic o ka testosterone. Hiki i nā steroid anabolic ke lilo i testosterone esters, testosterone precursors, a i ʻole nā ​​ʻano ʻano testosterone ʻē aʻe, hāʻawi ʻia lākou a pau e like me ka hormone maoli. 

He mea nui e hoʻomaopopo he ʻokoʻa nā steroid anabolic ma mua o nā corticosteroids e like me prednisone i hoʻohana ʻia no ka mālama ʻana i kekahi mau maʻi maʻi. Hoʻonohonoho pinepine ʻia nā steroid anabolic e nā kauka no ka haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa testosterone, ʻoiai lākou e hana like. Eia naʻe, hoʻohana pinepine ʻia kēia mau ʻano steroids e nā mea pāʻani a me nā bodybuilders e hoʻonui wikiwiki i ka nui o ka ʻiʻo. 

Hoʻopaʻa nā steroid anabolic i ka mea loaʻa androgen i ka lolo. Hoʻopili ka Testosterone i kēia mea loaʻa e hana i kona mau hopena, no laila, e wehewehe ana i ka hiki i nā steroid anabolic ke hana ma ke ʻano like me ka testosterone. Hiki ke loaʻa nā steroid anabolic i nā ʻano like ʻole e like me nā injections, pills, implanted pellets, gels, and creams. Pēlā nō, he nui nā ʻano like ʻole o nā steroid anabolic, ua hoʻohana ʻia ia mau mea āpau e mālama i nā maʻi maʻi e pili ana i nā pae haʻahaʻa testosterone. 

ʻO Testosterone he hormone kāne kāne i hana maoli ʻia i loko o ke kino. ʻO nā esters testosterone, ʻo ia nā esters o ka testosterone maoli a i ʻole ka testosterone synthetic ka mea i hoʻohana pinepine ʻia i nā steroid anabolic no ka mālama ʻana i nā pae testosterone haʻahaʻa. ʻO nā hiʻohiʻona o ka testosterone esters he testosterone enanthate, testosterone cypionate, testosterone propionate, testosterone Sustanon 250, testosterone phenylpropionate, testosterone decanoate, testosterone isocaproate, a me ka testosterone undecanoate. 

ʻO ke kumu ma hope o ka hoʻohana nui ʻana o ka testosterone esters e like me ka anabolic steroid no ka mea ʻo ke kaʻina hana esterification ʻoi aku ka bioavailable o ka steroid anabolic ma o ka hana ʻana i ka hormone maoli a i ʻole synthetic hormone metabolism-resistant. ʻO ka waiho wale ʻana, lilo kēia mau anabolic steroid esters i prohormone a i ʻole pro steroid versions, pono e hoʻāla ʻia i ke kino. 

Ma muli o ka hāʻawiʻiaʻana o nā esters steroid anabolic ma o nā injections intramuscular, he mea nui e hoʻomaopopo i nā pono i loaʻa mai i kēiaʻano o ka hāʻawiʻana i ka steroid. Hoʻolohi ʻia ka hoʻopau ʻana o nā esters Testosterone e like me ka lohi o ka absorption o nā esters. Kōkua kēia i ka hakakā ʻana i ka pilikia o ka hapalua o ke ola o nā testosterone esters. Hoʻohana ʻia kēia mau esters i ka hormone replacement therapy a no nā haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa testosterone, no laila he mea nui ka loaʻa ʻana o ka hapalua o ke ola. 

 

5. ʻO wai ka mea e pono ai ka lāʻau Testosterone?

I ka makahiki hoʻokahi, hoʻomaka ka pae o ka testosterone e emi. He ʻāpana maʻamau kēia o ka ulu ʻana o nā kāne, me ka emi ʻana o 1 pakeneka o nā pae testosterone i kēlā me kēia makahiki ma hope o ka makahiki 30. Hiki i ka poʻe ma luna o kēia mau makahiki ke pōmaikaʻi mai ka mālama ʻana i ka testosterone me ka poʻe e hoʻohana ana i nā injections testosterone esters e ʻōlelo ana e ʻike i ka hoʻomaikaʻi nui ʻana i ka nui o ka ʻiʻo, ka ulu ʻana o ka ʻiʻo, ka libido, a me ke olakino noʻonoʻo a me ke kino.

ʻO ka hae Testosterone pauda02

6. No ke aha e makemake ai nā Bodybuilders i nā Testosterone Injections?

He nui nā pōmaikaʻi o Testosterone akā he mea nui e hoʻomaopopo i ka wā e kūkākūkā ai i kēia kumuhana, pili ka testosterone injections i nā injections o testosterone esters. Pono e lawe ʻia kēia mau injections i hoʻokahi manawa i kēlā me kēia ʻelua a ʻehā mau pule, e maʻalahi i nā bodybuilders a me nā mea pāʻani e pili i ka mālama ʻana i ka testosterone. Hiki i kēia hoʻomaha lōʻihi ma waena o nā injections ma muli o ka hoʻolohi ʻana o ka intramuscular injections i ka absorption o ka testosterone ester i ke kahe koko. Eia kekahi, ʻo ke kaʻina hana esterification e hana i ka synthetic testosterone metabolism kūpaʻa, ʻo ia ka mea e hoʻokuʻu mālie ʻia a hoʻohana ʻia e ke kino. Loaʻa kēia mau mea a pau i ka hapalua o ke ola o ka testosterone synthetic a me ka hoʻohemo lohi. 

ʻO ka mea maʻamau, makemake nā bodybuilders a me nā mea pāʻani i nā injections testosterone ma muli o nā pono he nui o ka hormone i hōʻike ʻia ma lalo nei:

(1) Ulu ʻiʻo

Hana ʻo Testosterone ma ke ʻano he steroid anabolic, ʻo ia hoʻi ke ʻano o ke kūkulu ʻana i ka ʻiʻo. No laila, hoʻohana nui ʻia nā inikini testosterone e nā mea pāʻani a me nā bodybuilders no ko lākou hiki ke hoʻonui a hoʻomaikaʻi i ka ulu ʻana o ka ʻiʻo. Hana pinepine ʻo Testosterone i kāna mau hana like ʻole ma ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka estrogen a i ʻole dihydrotestosterone, ʻo ia ka ʻano ʻoi aku ka ikaika o ka hormone. Eia naʻe, ʻo nā pōmaikaʻi i ʻimi ʻia e nā bodybuilders ka hopena o ka hana pololei o ka testosterone ma nā ʻiʻo a me ka momona. 

Hoʻoulu ʻo Testosterone i nā ʻiʻo precursor cell i ʻike ʻia he satellite cell, e hoʻāla ʻia a laila hoʻokomo ʻia i loko o nā ʻiʻo ʻiʻo e hopena i ka nui o ka ʻiʻo a i ʻole e hōʻuluʻulu a hana i nā ʻiʻo ʻiʻo hou. Ma waho o ke ʻano o ke ʻano i hahai ʻia, ʻo ka hopena hope o ka hoʻoulu ʻana i ka testosterone e hoʻonui i ka nui o ka ʻiʻo. ʻO kēia kekahi o nā kumu nui e makemake ai nā mea pāʻani a me nā bodybuilders e hoʻohana i nā injections testosterone.

Hoʻonui pū ka Testosterone i ka helu o nā mea hoʻokipa androgen i loko o ka fiber muscle ma o ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka helu o nā nuclei i nā ʻiʻo muscle. He mea kōkua nui kēia i ka wā e hoʻomaʻamaʻa ai nā bodybuilders, ʻoiai ʻo ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa ʻana e hoʻomaikaʻi i ka naʻau o ka androgen receptors. Me ka hoʻonui ʻia o nā mea hoʻokipa e pili ana i nā esters testosterone, ʻoi aku ka maʻalahi o ka testosterone e hoʻopaʻa i nā ʻiʻo ʻiʻo a hana i ka hana hoʻoikaika kino. 

ʻIke nui ʻia ʻo Testosterone ma ke ʻano he anabolic steroid akā he anti-catabolic steroid ʻo ia hoʻi ʻaʻole ia e hoʻoulu wale i ka kūkulu ʻana i ka ʻiʻo, akā pale pū nō hoʻi i ka haʻihaʻi ʻana o ka ʻiʻo ma ke kāohi ʻana i ka hana o nā hormones catabolic i loko o ke kino. Hoʻonui kēia i ka ulu ʻana o ka ʻiʻo i nā bodybuilders.

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(2) Hoʻonui i ka hoʻomanawanui

Hiki i ka Testosterone ke hoʻomaikaʻi i ke kahe koko ma o ka hoʻoulu ʻana i ka hana o ka erythropoietin i loko o ke kino. ʻO ka mea a kēia hormone e hoʻoikaika ai i ka hoʻokumu ʻana o ke koko, ʻo ia hoʻi, nā ʻulaʻula ʻulaʻula. He mea koʻikoʻi kēia no ka hoʻomaʻamaʻa ʻana i nā mea haʻuki a me nā bodybuilders no ka mea makemake lākou i ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka oxygen e hoʻohālikelike i nā koi oxygen o ka ʻiʻo i ka wā hoʻomaʻamaʻa. I ka lawe ʻana o ke koko ʻulaʻula i ka oxygen i loko o ke koko a hāʻawi iā ia i nā ʻiʻo peripheral, ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o kēia piʻi ʻana o ke koko ʻulaʻula ma muli o ka testosterone. 

ʻO ka hoʻonui ʻana o ka oxygen hāʻawi ʻia e like me ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka hoʻomanawanui no ka mea e pale ana i ka luhi mua o nā ʻiʻo a hiki i nā mea hoʻomaʻamaʻa hoʻomaʻamaʻa e hana no nā lōʻihi lōʻihi. 

 

(3) Hoʻonui i ka ikaika o ka ʻiʻo

ʻO ke ala maʻalahi e hoʻonui ai ka testosterone i ka ikaika o ka ʻiʻo ma o ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka nui o ka ʻiʻo, i kūkākūkā ʻia ma luna. Ua manaʻo ʻia ʻo ia wale nō ka hana o ka hana nā ʻekikū testosterone ʻo ia ka hopena o ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka ikaika o ka ʻiʻo akā ua ʻike nā holomua hou i ke kahua o ka lāʻau lapaʻau e hoʻomaikaʻi ʻia ka ikaika o ka ʻiʻo e ka hana o ka testosterone ma nā pae calcium. 

ʻO ka ʻokiʻoki ʻana o ka ʻiʻo, a no laila, pili ka ikaika i ka hoʻokuʻu ʻana o ka calcium i loko o ke kelepona. Hoʻonui ka Testosterone i kēia hoʻokuʻu calcium, e hoʻomaikaʻi i ka ʻokiʻoki ʻana o ka ʻiʻo, a no laila, hoʻonui i ka ikaika o ka ʻiʻo. ʻOi aku ka maikaʻi o kēia i ka poʻe bodybuilders me nā hana hoʻoikaika kaumaha. 

 

(4) Hoʻonui i ka hana ʻAlepa

ʻO Testosterone, ma nā pae maʻamau, ʻaʻole i loaʻa i ka hopena pololei i ka hana haʻuki, akā ua ʻike ʻia nā mea pāʻani 'Olumepika he mau pae testosterone kiʻekiʻe. Ua ʻike ʻia nā kāne a me nā wahine e hana maikaʻi loa me ka piʻi ʻana o nā pae testosterone i loko o ke kino, ʻoiai ʻaʻole i ʻike maopopo ʻia ke ʻano. 

 

(5) E mālama i ka momona o ke kino a me ke ʻano paona

Ke hana pololei nei ka testosterone ma ke kikowaena o ke kikowaena e hoʻoponopono i ka metabolism, ʻaʻole ia he mea kupanaha ke ʻike i ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka momona a me ke kaumaha i nā kāne me ka haʻahaʻa testosterone. Eia kekahi, ʻo ka haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa i loko o nā kāne e hopena pinepine i ka hoʻemi ʻana i nā lilo caloric me ka lohi o ka metabolism basal ma muli o ka hopena o ka testosterone ma ka ʻōnaehana nerve waena. 

ʻO ka hoʻonui ʻia ʻana o ka hormone testosterone ma o nā inikini testosterone e kōkua i ka hoʻoponopono ʻana i ke ʻano kaumaha me ka hoʻemi ʻana o ka momona o ke kino. Hoʻopaʻa ʻia nā inikini Testosterone ʻo ke kaumaha i loaʻa ʻo ia ka nui o ka ʻiʻo lean a ʻaʻole ka momona o ke kino. Kōkua kēia i nā mea pāʻani a me nā bodybuilders i ko lākou ʻai ʻana i ka nui o nā calorie a laila puhi pū iā lākou, akā ʻaʻole ʻike i ka nalowale o ka ʻiʻo akā ʻoi aku ka momona.

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7. He aha nā Esters maʻamau o ka Testosterone Injection?

ʻO ka testosterone injection ka hapa nui o nā esters testosterone ma muli o nā pono like ʻole o nā esters i hōʻike ʻia ma luna. ʻO nā mea hoʻolālā o nā esters maʻamau o ka testosterone injection, i ka hoʻohālikelike ʻia me ka lāʻau testosterone, ua ʻōlelo ʻia ma lalo nei:

ʻO Androgen ester Pākahi

mol. kaumaha

Pākahi

T maʻiʻob

Kūlana Moiet(ies) ʻAno loaa
ʻO Testosterone undecanoate C17β ʻAka undecanoic ʻakika momona kaulahao pololei 11 1.58 0.63
Testosterone propionate C17β ʻakika propanoic ʻakika momona kaulahao pololei 3 1.19 0.84
Testosterone phenylpropionate C17β Phenylpropanoic acid ʻakika momona ʻala – (~6) 1.46 0.69
Testosterone isocaproate C17β ʻAka Isohexanoic ʻAkika momona kaulahao lālā – (~5) 1.34 0.75
Testosterone isobutyrate C17β ʻakika isobutyric ʻakika momona ʻala – (~3) 1.24 0.80
Testosterone enanthate C17β Heptanoic acid ʻakika momona kaulahao pololei 7 1.39 0.72
ʻO ka Testosterone decanoate C17β ʻakika decanoic ʻakika momona kaulahao pololei 10 1.53 0.65
ʻO Testosterone cypionate C17β Cyclopentylpropanoic acid ʻakika momona ʻala – (~6) 1.43 0.70
Testosterone caproate C17β Hexanoic acid ʻakika momona kaulahao pololei 6 1.35 0.75
Testosterone buciclated C17β ʻAka Bucyclice ʻAʻala carboxylic acid – (~9) 1.58 0.63
Testosterone - - - - 1.00 1.00

Ua haʻi ʻia ma lalo nei nā hiʻohiʻona pololei o kēlā me kēia testosterone ester a pehea lākou e hana ai i ke kino. 

 

⧫ Testosterone Enanthate

Testosterone enanthate kūʻai ʻia ma lalo o ka inoa inoa inoa, delatesteryl a me xyosted, a hāʻawi ʻia ma ke ʻano he intramuscular injection a subcutaneous injection i kēlā me kēia ʻehā pule. Ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa, ʻo ia ka mea i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i ka papa III a he kānāwai no ka hoʻohana ʻana i waena o ka poʻe i loaʻa i nā pae testosterone haʻahaʻa a me nā kāne transgender. Ma Kanada, ʻo ka testosterone ester ka mea hoʻonohonoho IV i hoʻomalu ʻia. 

Hoʻopili ʻia ka Testosterone enanthate i loko o ke ake a hoʻokuʻu ʻia i loko o ka mimi, me ka hapalua o ke ola o ʻehā lā a ʻelima mau lā. 

 

⧫ Testosterone Cypionate

ʻO Testosterone cypionate ʻo ia ka ester testosterone maʻamau i kūʻai ʻia ma lalo o ka inoa depo testosterone. He mea liʻiliʻi ia ma ka ʻaoʻao pricier ke kūʻai ʻia me ka inoa brand akā naʻe, ʻo nā ʻano generic o ka testosterone ester ua aneane hapalua o ke kumukūʻai o ka depo testosterone. Hoʻohana pū ʻia ʻo Testosterone cypionate no nā kāne me nā haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa a no nā mea pāʻani ma USA a me Kanada, ʻo ia kahi mea i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i ka papa II a me kahi mea hoʻokele IV e like me ia. 

Hāʻawi ʻia ma ke ʻano he injection intramuscular wale nō, ua hoʻololi ʻia ʻo Testosterone cypionate i loko o ke akepaʻa a hoʻokuʻu ʻia i loko o nā mea ʻelua, mimi a me nā feces, ʻoiai ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe o ka nui o ka mimi o nā metabolites hana ʻole o ka ester. He 8 mau lā ka hapalua o ke ola. 

 

⧫ Testosterone Propionate

Kūʻai ʻia ma lalo o ka inoa brand, testoviron, Testosterone propionate he testosterone ester i lawelawe ʻia ma o ka hoʻokele intramuscular a i ʻole ma ke ala o ka hoʻokele. E like me nā esters ma luna nei, ʻo Testosterone propionate kekahi mea i hoʻonohonoho ʻia i ka papa III a me kahi mea hoʻokele IV i mālama ʻia ma USA a me Kanada. 

ʻO ka hapalua o ke ola o ka testoviron he 20 mau hola, a hoʻokahi manawa i hoʻololi ʻia i loko o ke akepaʻa, hoʻokuʻu ʻia ka testosterone propionate ma mua a piha loa i ka mimi. 

 

⧫ Testosterone Sustanon 250

ʻO Sustanon 250 a i ʻole Sustanon 100 kahi injection intramuscular i hoʻomākaukau ʻia me ka hui pū ʻana o nā esters testosterone ʻehā, ʻo ia hoʻi, testosterone phenylpropionate, testosterone decanoate, testosterone isocaproate, a me testosterone propionate. He hoʻomākaukau aila 1 ml i loaʻa ka 250 mg o nā esters testosterone i ʻōlelo ʻia ma aneʻi. 

Hoʻohana nui ʻia ʻo Sustanon ma Great Britain ma ke ʻano he testosterone a ʻo ia ka mea i makemake nui ʻia e nā bodybuilders a me nā mea pāʻani. 

 

⧫ Testosterone Phenylpropionate

Kūʻai ʻia ma lalo o ka inoa inoa ʻo testolent, testosterone phenylpropionate he ester testosterone i ʻike ʻia ʻo Testosterone phenpropionate a me Testosterone hydrocinnamate. He ʻāpana ia o ka Sustanon 250 i ʻōlelo ʻia ma luna nei i kēia manawa aia wale nō ka testosterone isocaproate. Ua hoʻolaha nui ʻia ia ma Great Britain a me Romania, ma ke ʻano he mea hana i loko o kekahi mau huahana i loaʻa pū kekahi esters testosterone. Eia naʻe, ʻaʻole kūʻai ʻia a hoʻolaha ʻia e like me kēia manawa a hoʻohana nui ʻia no nā kumu noiʻi. 

 

⧫ Testosterone Decanoate

ʻAʻole kūʻai ʻia ka Testosterone decanoate ma ke ʻano he hoʻomākaukau ester testosterone hoʻokahi akā he mea ia o ka hoʻomākaukau ʻana o Sustanon me ka testosterone isocaproate a me ka testosterone phenylpropionate. Ke aʻo ʻia nei kēia ester i kēia manawa ma muli o ka lōʻihi o ka hana ʻana akā naʻe, ʻo ka nele o ka hiki ke hana ma ke ʻano he hoʻomākaukau lāʻau hoʻokahi ke keʻakeʻa nei i kona hopena. 

 

⧫ Testosterone Isocaproate

Kūʻai ʻia ʻo Testosterone isocaproate ma lalo o ka inoa inoa ʻo Sustanon 250 a i ʻole Sustanon 100. Loaʻa ia ma ke ʻano he intramuscular injection i metabolized a excreted i ka mimi. 

 

⧫ Testosterone undecanoate

Kūʻai ʻia ma lalo o ka inoa inoa ʻo Andriol a me Aveed, testosterone undecanoate, a i ʻole testosterone undecylate i hoʻohana nui ʻia no kona lōʻihi o ka hana. He 21 mau lā ka hapalua o ke ola o kēia testosterone ester i ka wā i hoʻomākaukau ʻia ai me ka ʻaila hua kī a ma kahi o 33 mau lā ke hoʻomākaukau ʻia me ka ʻaila castor. ʻO Testosterone undecanoate ka mea me ka hapalua o ke ola lōʻihi, o nā esters testosterone āpau me ka testosterone decanoate e hele mai ana ma kahi lua. 

ʻO ka Testosterone undecanoate kahi mea i hoʻomaluʻia i ka papahana III a me ka mea i hoʻomaluʻia i ka papahana IV maʻAmelika Hui Pūʻia a me Kanada. Hāʻawi ʻia ma ke ʻano he intramuscular injection, ua hoʻopili ʻia ka huahana e ke ake a hoʻokuʻu ʻia i loko o ka mimi. Ma muli o ka lōʻihi o ka hapalua o ke ola a me ka hoʻohana ʻana o 1000 mg, ʻo ka testosterone undecanoate e lawelawe wale ʻia i kēlā me kēia pule he 12. 

8. Pehea e loaʻa ai ka maikaʻi loa Testosterone Esters No Bodybuilding? 

Ma mua o ka hoʻoholo ʻana i ka ester testosterone maikaʻi loa no ka bodybuilding, he mea nui e hoʻomaopopo i ka hana a nā esters a pehea lākou e hana ai. Eia kekahi, he mea nui e hoʻoholo i nā pono pilikino a me ka nui o ka testosterone e koi ʻia, me ka makemake pinepine o nā bodybuilders a me nā mea pāʻani e hana i nā injections testosterone. Ke hoʻoholo ʻia kēia mau mea a pau, hiki ke hoʻomaka ka ʻimi no ka ester testosterone maikaʻi loa.

ʻO Testosterone propionate ka mea kūʻai maikaʻi loa a me ka testosterone ester me ka sustanon. Loaʻa ka poʻe bodybuilders e hilinaʻi a hoʻohiki e kēia mau esters testosterone ʻelua. ʻO kaʻoiaʻiʻo, ua manaʻoʻia kēia mau meaʻelua i ka testosterone maikaʻi loa no ka bodybuilding akā naʻe, hiki ke hoʻololiʻia kēia ma muli o nā pono a me ka makemake o ka bodybuilder. 

( 3 5 7 )↗

Punawai Haumana

PubMed Central

Ua mahalo nui ʻia mai ka National Institutes of Health
E hele i ke kumu

No ka 'ike hou aku, he raw mea hoʻolako steroid hiki ke hoʻopili ʻia i hiki ke hoʻomaopopo ʻia ʻo wai ka mea kūpono iā ʻoe a ʻo wai ka mea kaulana loa, a no ke aha. Inā ʻaʻole ʻoe makemake e hana i ka testosterone injections, hiki ke hoʻopau pū ʻia nā ʻano ʻano testosterone ʻē aʻe e like me nā papa testosterone me ka pauka testosterone maka. 

NPP

1. No ke aha ʻoe e noʻonoʻo ai i ka pauka hoʻoikaika testosterone?

E like me ka mea i ʻōlelo ʻia ma luna, hāʻule nā ​​pae o ka hormone i ka piʻi ʻana o ka makahiki. Ma waena o nā makahiki he 20 a hiki i ka 25 ke kiʻekiʻe loa nā pae. Ke komo nei ʻoe i ka hapalua o kanakolu, hoʻomaka mālie ka pae o ka hormone e emi. ʻO ka hoʻohaʻahaʻa ʻana i nā pae testosterone me ka makahiki he hana maʻamau. Eia nō naʻe, ʻo ka mea e ʻike ʻia ʻo ia ka hopena o nā hana like ʻole o ke kino i kākoʻo ʻia e ka hormone.

E ʻike ʻoe i ka paʻakikī o ka ʻoki ʻana i ke kaumaha me ka hana ʻana; ʻAʻole maikaʻi ka hana hoʻokamakama e like me ka wā ma mua, a ua pili ka ulu ʻana o ka ʻiʻo. Eia kekahi, lohi nui ka ulu ʻana o ka ʻiʻo. Akā ʻaʻole pono ʻoe e hopohopo i kēia manawa. Aia nā hoʻonā kūlohelohe, ma ke ʻano o nā meaʻai meaʻai, i loaʻa i ka mākeke. Pono e hāʻawi ʻia nā pauka booster Testosterone i hana ʻia mai nā mea kūlohelohe e like me ka nui o nā poʻe i pōmaikaʻi mai kēia mau mea hoʻohui me ka ʻole o nā hopena ʻino.

E hoʻomanaʻo ʻaʻole i hoʻolālā ʻia kēia mau mea hoʻohui e hoʻonui i nā pae o kekahi i ko lākou mau makahiki 60 e hoʻohālikelike me kā lākou ʻōpio i ko lākou mau makahiki he 20. Hoʻokumu ʻia lākou e hoʻonui i nā pae, no laila e hana ke kino i nā hana āpau e pili ana i ka pae hormone me nā hopena maikaʻi aʻe.

2. He aha nā pōmaikaʻi o ka lawe ʻana i ka testosterone booster?

ʻO nā mea hoʻonui Testosterone he mau mea hoʻopihapiha maoli e hoʻonui i ka testosterone a me nā hormones pili i ka testosterone i kou kino. Ke hana nei kekahi mau mea hoʻoikaika testosterone ma ke kāohi ʻana i ka estrogen, ka hormone wahine.

♦ No nā poʻe maʻi e loaʻa ana i ka hypogonadism (i ka wā e hoʻohua liʻiliʻi a ʻaʻole hoʻi i nā hormones ke kino o ka wahine), hiki i ka testosterone boosters ke hoʻohuli ikaika i ko lākou honua a puni ma o ka hoʻoikaika ʻana iā lākou.

♦ Hiki i kekahi mau kāne e lawe ana i nā mea hoʻoikaika hoʻāʻo ke ʻike i ka loli maikaʻi o ko lākou naʻau, ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka nui o ka ʻiʻo, ka iwi iwi, a me ka hoʻoikaika kino.

♦ Eia kekahi, hiki i ka testosterone boosters ke kōkua i nā pilikia e pili ana i ka erectile dysfunction a hiki ke hoʻolōʻihi iā lākou ma kahi moe.

♦ Ua manaʻo ʻia nā mea hoʻohui Testosterone e hoʻemi i ka pilikia o ka maʻi puʻuwai a me nā maʻi pili dementia. Eia naʻe, pono e makaʻala ka poʻe maʻi i ka maʻi puʻuwai a me ka hahau ma mua o ka hoʻomaka ʻana i nā mea hoʻoikaika testosterone o kēlā me kēia ʻano. Inā loaʻa iā ʻoe nā pilikia puʻuwai akā manaʻo ʻoe he mea pono ka testosterone booster, e kelepona i kāu kauka ma mua o ka hoʻomaka ʻana i kekahi lapaʻau.

3.No ke aha i makemake ai ka nui o nā bodybuilders e kūʻai i ka steroid testosterone enanthate pauka?

ʻO ka anabolic steroids testosterone enanthate pauka e hoʻohana nuiʻia e nā bodybuilders, nā mea pāʻani, a me nā "buffs" hoʻoikaika kino e'ōlelo ana i nā steroids e hāʻawi iā lākou i ka lanakila hoʻokūkū a / a iʻole e hoʻonui i kā lākou hana kino. Manaʻo ʻia nā steroids e hoʻonui i ka nui o ke kino lean, ikaika a me ka huhū. Ua manaʻoʻiʻo ʻia ʻo Testosterone enanthate pauka e hōʻemi i ka manawa hoʻihoʻi ma waena o nā workouts, e hiki ai ke hoʻomaʻamaʻa ikaika a no laila e hoʻomaikaʻi hou ai i ka ikaika a me ka hoʻomanawanui. 'O kekahi po'e 'a'ole 'o ka 'âlapa e ho'okomo pū i ka 'aila testosterone enanthate e ho'onui i ko lākou ho'omanawanui, ka nui o ka 'i'o a me ka ikaika, a ho'emi i ka momona o ke kino a lākou i mana'o ai e ho'omaika'i ai i ka helehelena pilikino. No laila, ʻo ka testosterone enanthate pauka no ke kūʻai aku he mau mea maʻamau loa ia ma ka mākeke, Aia nā mea kūʻai aku, aia nā mea kūʻai aku. Hāʻawi mau ʻo AASraw i ka hoʻāʻo maoli e ka pauka a me nā pauka testosterone ʻē aʻe ma Kina.

4. ʻAʻole hewa ka pauka testosterone?

ʻO ke kūlana kānāwai o ka pauka testosterone e hilinaʻi ʻia ma nā kānāwai o ka ʻāina a inā he lāʻau lapaʻau a ʻaʻole paha. Ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa, ʻo Testosterone ka pauka he mea mālama ʻia ʻo Schedule III, ʻo ia hoʻi ʻaʻole hiki iā ʻoe ke loaʻa i kēia steroid anabolic me ka ʻole o ka palapala kauoha mai kāu kauka.

Hiki paha iā ʻoe ke kūʻai aku i ka pauka testosterone ma luna o ka pākaukau akā pili kēia i nā kānāwai o kou ʻāina. No ka laʻana, hiki iā ʻoe ke kūʻai aku i ka pauka Testosterone ma luna o ka pākaukau ma Mexico me ka ʻole o ke kau ʻana akā kūʻē loa i ke kānāwai e lawe mai i ka testosterone propionate i United States.

5.Pehea e hana ai i nā aila testosterone homebrew i kēlā me kēia pae? (Testosterone enanthate aila e like me ka laʻana)

No ka hapa nui o ka poʻe, makemake lākou e hana i nā aila testosterone ma o lākou iho, he mea maʻalahi loa ka hana a hiki ke hoʻopau ʻia e mākou, ʻoiai ʻoe e mākaukau i nā mea hana a me nā ʻōlelo aʻoaʻo, no ka mea he nui nā steroid raws i like ke kaʻina hana e hana ai i nā aila pau no ka injection. E hana kākou i kēia manawa. No kēia laʻana, e hoʻohana wale wau i ka testosterone enanthate.

E hana ana au i 10 mau hue o ka testosterone enanthate ma 10ml no ka hue. ʻO ia ka huina o 100ml waiwai a e hana mākou iā 250mg/ml

No kēia, e hoʻohana mākou i kahi ratio BA / BB o 2/18, ʻo ia hoʻi 2%ba a me 18%bb, ʻaʻole ʻoe "pono" e loaʻa i ka bb i kēia akā kōkua ia i ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana i ka hui ʻana a hiki iā ʻoe ke hoʻohana liʻiliʻi. ʻaʻole ʻeha ka pana a hiki iā ʻoe ke piʻi i ka 400mg/ml inā makemake ʻoe

1) Hoʻopili i nā mea hoʻololi āpau i ka helu roid,

Maanei ʻoe e hoʻokomo ai i loko o ka aila ml's=100ml

He 250mg/ml ka nui

E waiho i ka paona pauda ma .75, hana maikaʻi kēia no ka hapa nui o nā mea āpau

Ba, hoʻopili i .02(2%)

BB, hoʻopili i .18(18%)

Hāʻawi kēia iā ʻoe i kēia e like me ka calculator

-61.25ml o ka aila sterile (makemake au i ka hua waina)

-25.00 grams o ka pauka enanthate

-2ml o ka BA

-18ml o ka BB

2) E hoʻohana i ka beaker 500ml a hoʻomaʻemaʻe i ka maikaʻi e like me ka hiki, ʻaʻole nui ka mea e kānana mākou i ka mea a mākou e huki ai. E lawe i ka 25.00 grams o ka pauka enanthate a hoʻokomo i loko o ka beaker.

3) e kau i ka 2ml o ka BA a me ka 18ml o ka BB ma laila, ua maʻalahi ke ana ʻia me kahi syringe 10 a i ʻole 20cc. Me he mea lā ʻaʻole lawa kēia no ka hoʻoheheʻe ʻana i ka pauda a pau, akā ʻo ia.

4) E kau i ka pā palai ma luna o ka umu ma ka pae wela 3 a i ʻole, makemake wau e hoʻokomo i kahi wai i loko o ka pā. A laila e hoʻonoho i ka beaker me ka ba/bb/powder i loko o ka pā a e hoʻomāmā ka wai/pan i ka beaker. E ʻike ʻoe i ka hoʻomaka ʻana o ka pauka e "hoʻoheheʻe" a hoʻoheheʻe ʻia a hana ia i kahi hopena maʻalahi loa. Hiki iā ʻoe ke hoʻohana i ke koʻokoʻo aniani e hoʻoulu a wikiwiki i kēia kaʻina hana

5) Ma hope o ka hoʻoheheʻe ʻana o ka ba / bb i ka pauka, I kēia manawa e ninini i ka 61.25ml o ka aila sterile a waiho i ka wela a hoʻoulu ʻia me ke koʻokoʻo aniani no kekahi mau minuke, e loaʻa iā ʻoe kahi kāwili maikaʻi.

6) a laila makemake au e hoʻemi i ka wela i ka 1 a i ʻole no ka noho mahana ʻana o ka hui ʻana… kānana ʻana i ka hui ʻana ʻoiai ʻoi aku ka maʻalahi o ka wela ma mua o kona wela lumi.

E kau i kāu nila 18g hou ma o ka pahu pahu a i loko o ka ʻōmole 100ml i sterile maoli. E kau i ka kānana whatman .45 ma luna o nā nila e like me ka hoʻololi ʻana.

7) E hoʻohana i ka syringe 10ml e huki ai i ka ʻaila mehana, e kaomi i ka ʻaila ma o ka kānana whatman a i loko o ka hue aniani sterile. ʻO ka nui o ka syringe āu e hoʻohana ai, ʻoi aku ka paʻakikī o ka hoʻokuʻu ʻana i ka ʻaila ma laila. Hoʻohana maʻamau au i kahi syringe 30ml e huki i ka ʻaila mai ka beaker a laila hoʻi i hope e hoʻopiha i ka syringe 10ml a paʻi me ka syringe 10ml e like me ka hiki ʻole ke hoʻokuʻu ʻia me ka 30ml.

8) ma hope o ka hoʻokuʻu ʻia ʻana iā ʻoe he 100ml ma 250mg/ml o kahi steroid injectable sterile a palekana. Makemake kekahi e hoʻomoʻa i ka sterilize ʻoi aku i kēia manawa akā ʻaʻole wau i ʻike pono inā loaʻa iā ʻoe nā mea sterile. Ua lawe au i mau haneli cc a ʻaʻole loa i loaʻa kahi pilikia sterility, hana ka ba i kāna hana i ka mālama ʻana i ka sterile!

9) i kēia manawa hiki iā ʻoe ke huki i ka 10ccs i ka manawa a hoʻopiha i nā ʻōmole 10ml pākahi e hana i 10 mau hue.

ʻO kēia ke kaʻina hana piha e hana ai i nā aila pau, ke manaʻoʻiʻo nei au ua pane ʻia nā nīnau he nui ma hope o ka heluhelu ʻana i kēia ʻanuʻu. pehea e hana ai i ka testosterone propionate mai ka pauka? E ho'āʻo i nā aila ʻaila a hoʻāʻo i nā aila cyp, ʻoiai he 250 mau aila, ʻano like kā lākou ʻaila homebrew, ʻokoʻa wale nō ka ʻai. No ka meaʻai, pono ʻoe e kamaʻilio me kā mākou kūʻai aku ke kau ʻoe i ke kauoha, e hoʻāʻo lākou e hāʻawi i ka ʻike āu e makemake ai e ʻike.

6. He aha ka sustanon 250 pauda i hana ʻia?

ʻO Sustanon 250 kahi hui testosterone kaulana (hui ʻia) a ʻaʻohe nīnau i ka hui kaulana a kaulana loa i hana ʻia. Hanaʻia e Organon,ʻo ka manaʻo ma hope o Sustanon 250 e hāʻawi i ka maikaʻi o nā testosterones ester liʻiliʻi (pōkole) a nui (lōʻihi) i loko o kahi hui hoʻokahi. ʻO kēia ka mea e hiki ai i ke kanaka ke mālama i nā pae koko paʻa o ka hormone testosterone me ka papa kuhikuhi pinepine ʻole i ka wā e loaʻa ai nā pōmaikaʻi wikiwiki.

Testosterone propionate 30 mgs: Mai loko mai o nā 250 mgs i hana i kēia pūhui, ʻo 30mg (12%) wale nō ka ester propionate pōkole loa; no laila, ʻaʻole pono e mālama ʻia ʻo sustanon 250 e like me propionate. ʻO ka mea maʻamau, hoʻohana ʻia ka ester propionate e ka poʻe e ʻimi nei i kahi ester pōkole i loko o ka pōʻai o 8 mau pule a i ʻole ka liʻiliʻi, pono e hoʻopili ʻia i kēlā me kēia lā a i kēlā me kēia lā. ʻO ka hapalua o ke ola he 3.5 mau lā, no laila ʻoi aku ka wikiwiki o ka ʻōnaehana ma mua o nā esters ʻē aʻe. ʻO kaʻoiaʻiʻo, he nui nā bodybuilders e ʻōlelo nei ua ʻike lākou i ka liʻiliʻi o ka aromatization mai ka propionate, aia paha kekahi mea e pili ana i ka ʻoiaʻiʻo ʻaʻole ia e noho lōʻihi i ka ʻōnaehana.

Testosterone phenylpropionate 60 mgs: ʻO kēia ester ka lua pōkole loa o ka hui ʻana, a loaʻa ka hapa nui ma Nandrolone Phenylpropionate (NPP). He hapalua kona ola o 4.5 mau lā, no laila ke hāʻule mālie nei ka propionate, hiki iā ʻoe ke manaʻo i ka phenylpropionate ma laila a hāʻawi i kahi hoʻoikaika ma mua o ka hoʻomaka ʻana o nā esters lōʻihi.

Testosterone isocaproate 60 mgs: ʻO kēia ke kolu o ka ester pōkole loa me ka hapalua o ke ola o 9 mau lā, kahi kokoke i ka ester enanthate, no ka mea he 10.5 mau lā hapalua o ke ola.

Testosterone decanoate 100 mgs: ʻO kēia ester lōʻihi loa e paʻa i ka hapa nui o ka mea hana i ka sustanon, e hana ana i 100 mgs mai loko mai o ka 250 mgs. ʻO ka hapalua o ke ola o kēia ester he 15 mau lā.

 

Testosterone sustanon pauka meaʻai no ka laʻana:

Testosterone Sustanon 250mg/ml @ 100ml meaʻai kuke:

Testosterone Blend pauda 25g (18.75ml)

2% BA 2ml

20% BB 20ml

59.25mlʻAla puna

7.ʻO wai ka testosterone iʻoi aku ka maikaʻi Testosterone Sustanon 250 pauka a iʻole enanthate pauka?

I ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana i ka pauka Sustanon 250 a me Testosterone Enanthate pauka, aia ka ʻokoʻa mua i ka lōʻihi ester.

ʻO ka pauka Sustanon 250, he hui lōʻihi lōʻihi o Testosterone, e lōʻihi ana ka "kick in" akā hiki ke loaʻa nā pōmaikaʻi mai kēia pūhui anabolic me ka liʻiliʻi o nā injections pinepine. ʻO Testosterone Enanthate, ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, pono e lawelawe ʻia i kēlā me kēia pule ma muli o nā esters pōkole ʻoiai ʻoi aku ka wikiwiki o kona hopena ma mua o Sustanon.

ʻO Testosterone enanthate pauka, ke hoʻohanaʻia no nā kaʻa o 10-12 wiki, he steroid maikaʻi loa ia no ka mea maʻalahi i nā mea pāʻani ke hoʻoholo a mālama i nā pae testosterone. Eia nō naʻe, e nalowale ana kēia pōmaikaʻi i ka wā o ka lōʻihi o ke kaʻina he 4-6 mau wiki e like me nā hopena o ka steroid e hoʻomaka e hōʻike ma hope o 2-4 mau pule. Ma muli o nā esters i hui pū ʻia, ʻo Sustanon kahi steroid paʻakikī e hana ai i ka wā e pili ana i ka hoʻokele maikaʻi ʻana i nā pae koko.

Eia naʻe, ua manaʻoʻiaʻo Testosterone enanthate pauka eʻoi aku ka maʻalahi ma mua o Sustanon i ka wā e pili ana i ka estrogenic side-effect management. ʻO kēia ma muli o ke ʻano o nā pae koko testosterone e kūkulu i ka wikiwiki me ka hoʻohana ʻana o Testosterone enanthate a ʻo ia hoʻi ʻaʻole e hōʻike koke nā hopena ʻaoʻao. ʻO ka koho ma waena o Sustanon 250 pauka a me Testosterone Enanthate pauka e hilinaʻi wale ana i nā manaʻolana mai ka pōʻai steroid a me nā ʻike i hala (inā loaʻa).

8. Ho'āʻo E pauka Vs. Ho'āʻo C pauda

▪ ʻO ka pauka E hoʻāʻo a me ka pauka C ʻelua ʻano o nā ʻano ʻano testosterone esterified.

▪ ʻO ke kumu nui o ka testosterone esterification e hoʻonui i ka hoʻohana lāʻau lapaʻau a me ka hoʻohana ʻole.

▪ No laila, ʻoi aku ka maʻalahi o nā ʻano like ʻelua.

▪ Ua hoʻonui lākou i ka hapalua o ke ola.

▪ He mau androgens lākou me ka hopena like me nā mea hoʻoikaika testosterone.

▪ He mea koʻikoʻi nā mea ʻelua i ka lāʻau lapaʻau a me ke kino e hoʻonui ai i nā pae testosterone haʻahaʻa.

▪ Hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia ma o nā injections.

▪ Ua kaulana nā mea ʻelua ma muli o ka piʻi ʻana o ka hapalua o ke ola a me ka puka makani lōʻihi o ka hoʻokuʻu ʻana e hiki ai ke hoʻokō ʻia nā kaʻina hana hoʻokele maʻalahi.

ʻO ka pauka E ka Testosterone Enanthate e pili ana i kahi ester keʻokeʻo keʻokeʻo C26H40O3 o ka testosterone i hoʻohana nui ʻia i ka mālama ʻana i ka eunuchism, eunuchoidism, androgen deficiency ma hope o ka castration, nā hōʻailona o ka andropause, a me ka oligospermia aʻo Test C powder a i ʻole Testosterone Cypionate pauka e pili ana. i ka aila-soluble 17 (beta) -cyclopentylpropionate ester o ka androgenic hormone testosterone i hoʻohana nuiʻia i ka mālamaʻana i nā haʻahaʻa testosterone haʻahaʻa i nā kāne. No laila, wehewehe kēia i ka ʻokoʻa nui ma waena o ka pauka Test E a me ka pauka Test C. Eia kekahi, he ʻokoʻa ʻē aʻe ma waena o ka pauka Test E a me ka pauka Test C ʻo ia ka hoʻāʻo ʻana i ka pauka E he kumu honua ʻoiai ʻo Test C kahi huahana ʻAmelika.

ʻO ka hapalua ola ka ʻokoʻa nui ma waena o ka pauka Test E a me ka pauka Test C. ʻO ka ka hapalua o ke ola o Test E ʻO 10.5 mau lā aʻo ka hapalua o ke ola o Test C he 12 mau lā. ʻO ka helu maʻamau o Test E he 100 a 600 mg i kēlā me kēia pule no 10 a 12 mau wiki aʻo ka mea maʻamau o ka ho'āʻo C he 400 a 500 mg i kēlā me kēia pule no nā wiki 12. .Eia hoʻi, pono e hoʻokomo pinepine ʻia ka Test E ma mua o ka Test C. He ʻokoʻa ka kaulana ma waena o ka Test E a me ka Test C. ʻOi aku ka kaulana o ka Test E aʻo ka hoʻāʻo C ka mea kaulana ʻole.

ʻO Test E pauka a i ʻole Testosterone Enanthate he ʻano o ka testosterone esterified me ka hapalua o ke ola o 10.5 mau lā. He 7-carbon ester me kahi kumu honua. Ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē aʻe, ʻo Test C kahi ʻano o ka testosterone esterified me ka hapalua o ke ola o 12 mau lā. Eia kekahi, he 8-carbon ester me kahi kumu ʻAmelika. Eia naʻe, ma muli o ka liʻiliʻi o ka hapalua o ke ola, pono e hoʻokomo pinepine ʻia ʻo Test E ma mua o ka pauka Test C. No laila, ʻo ka ʻokoʻa nui ma waena o Test E a me Test C ʻo ia ka lōʻihi e pono ai ka mea hoʻohana e holo i kēlā me kēia hui no ka hopena kiʻekiʻe, a me ke alapine injection e pili ana i ka ester.

9.Pehea e hoʻomaka ai i ka pōʻai testosterone propionate?

He nui ka poʻe e nīnau i ka nīnau inā ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o nā pōkole pōkole a ʻaʻole paha. ʻO ka pane ʻo ia, ʻoiai ʻoi aku ka lōʻihi o nā kaila anabolic steroid e hōʻike ana i ka pilikia o ka HPTA (Hypothalamic Pituitary Testicular Axis) koʻikoʻi a hoʻopaʻa ʻia, e hopena i kahi manawa hoʻōla paʻakikī i ka wā o nā pule hope. ʻO ka hapa nui o ka manawa me nā pōkole pōkole, ʻaʻole ʻo ka HPTA, ma ka ʻōlelo a ke kanaka, "hopu" me ka wikiwiki i nā hormones exogenous. ʻO kēia ke kumu e hauʻoli ai ka poʻe he nui i nā pōʻai pōkole e like me 8 wiki wiki - hiki i ke kanaka ke hele wikiwiki i ka pōʻai, e loaʻa koke i kā lākou lanakila, a haʻalele i ka pōʻai a komo i ka PCT (Post Cycle Therapy) ma mua o ka hoʻomaka ʻana o ke kino. Hoʻopau a pani ʻia paha ka HPTA. ʻOiaʻiʻo, loaʻa i kēlā me kēia kanaka ko lākou ʻike kūʻokoʻa i ka pani ʻana o HPTA (ʻoi aku ka lohi o kekahi ma mua o nā mea ʻē aʻe, ʻoi aku ka wikiwiki o kekahi ma mua o nā mea ʻē aʻe, a ʻaʻole paʻa kekahi). Akā, ma ke ʻano he manaʻo maʻamau i kaʻana like ʻia e ka poʻe e hauʻoli nei i ka holo ʻana o Testosterone Propionate, ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o nā pōkole pōkole no kēia mau kumu.

 

 Hoʻomaka Testosterone Propionate Cycle

Hoʻohālike Hoʻohālikelike Testosterone Propionate Cycle Beginner (10 mau pule holoʻokoʻa manawa holoʻokoʻa)

Nā Hanana 1-10:

Testosterone Propionate ma 75 -125mg i kēlā me kēia lā (300-500mg / pule)

ʻO kēia ka pōʻaiapuni kumu mua loa quintessential, a ʻo ia ka maʻalahi o nā pōʻai Testosterone Propionate no nā poʻe hoʻomaka. ʻO ia ka hoʻolauna maikaʻi loa i nā steroid anabolic i ka laulā no kekahi mea hou i ka honua o ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka steroid anabolic.

 

 Kūwaena Testosterone Propionate Cycle

Ka Laʻana Kūlohelohe ʻo Testosterone Propionate Cycle (10 mau pule holoʻokoʻa manawa holoʻokoʻa)

Nā Hanana 1-10:

Testosterone Propionate ma 75-125mg i kēlā me kēia lā (300-500mg / pule)

Nandrolone Decanoate (Deca Durabolin) ma 400mg / pule

Nā wiki 1-4: Dianabol ma 25mg / lā

ʻO kahi hiʻohiʻona maikaʻi loa o kahi pōʻai kahi e hoʻohana ai ke kanaka i kahi steroid anabolic pōkole, e like me Testosterone Propionate, me kahi steroid anabolic lōʻihi estered e like me Nandrolone Decanoate (Deca Durabolin). Ma nā kikoʻī kikoʻī, e hoʻokaʻawale ke kanaka iā Testosterone Propionate i kēlā me kēia lā, ʻoiai ʻo Deca Durabolin e lawelawe ʻia ʻelua manawa i kēlā me kēia pule ma kahi kaʻawale (Poakahi a me Pōʻalima, no ka laʻana). ʻO ke kanaka e komo ana i kēia ʻano o Testosterone Propionate cycle e hoʻonohonoho a manawa i ka Nandrolone Decanoate injections e hui pū me nā ʻano ʻokoʻa Testosterone Propionate injections. ʻO kēia ke ʻōlelo ʻana, no ka laʻana, inā ʻo ka papahana injection o Testosterone Propionate i nā lā aʻe i ka Pōʻalua, Pōʻalima, Pōʻaono, Pōʻakahi, Pōʻakolu a laila e lawelawe ʻia ʻo Nandrolone Decanoate i ka Pōʻalua a me ka Pōʻakahi o kēlā papa hoʻokele.

 

 Kiʻekiʻe Testosterone Propionate Cycle

ʻO ka Laʻana Hōʻike Kūlohelohe ʻo Testosterone Propionate (8 mau pule holoʻokoʻa manawa holoʻokoʻa)

Nā Hanana 1-8:

Testosterone Propionate ma 25mg i kēlā me kēia lā (100mg / pule)

Tren Acetate ma 100mg i kēlā me kēia lā (400mg / pule)

ʻO kahi hiʻohiʻona maʻamau a quintessential o ka holomua Testosterone Propionate cycles, ua hōʻike ʻia kēia pōʻai kūikawā i ka hoʻohana ʻana o Testosterone Propionate ma ke ʻano he pūhui kākoʻo i hoʻohana ʻia ma TRT doses maʻemaʻe no ke kumu o ka mālama ʻana i ka hana physiological maʻamau me ka ʻole o ka hana maʻamau o ka hana Testosterone endogenous. ua kāohi ʻia ma muli o ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā steroid anabolic).

10. Pehea pinepine au e ho'ā ai i ka cypionate?

Aia ia i ka hapalua o ke ola o ka ester o ka testosterone āu e hoʻokomo nei.

Testosterone propionoate - i kēlā me kēia lā a i ʻole kēlā me kēia lā ʻelua (manaʻo i kēlā me kēia lā)

Testosterone enanthate / cypionate / sustanon - Hoʻokahi manawa kūpono i ka pule, hiki iā ʻoe ke hana i kēlā me kēia 10 lā. Hāʻawi nā kauka i kēia i kēlā me kēia pule ʻelua, he kuhihewa ia.

Testosterone decanoate a me undecanoate – Mai hoʻohana i kēia mau esters shitty, ʻaʻole maikaʻi loa lākou no ka hana haʻuki inā hoʻomaʻamaʻa ʻoe. Loaʻa iā ʻoe hoʻokahi nila lio nunui i kēlā me kēia 6 pule a i ʻole.

Inā hoʻokaʻawale nui ʻoe i kāu mau inikini, loaʻa iā ʻoe kekahi hapa o ka manawa me ka T haʻahaʻa a me kahi hapa o ka manawa me ka T kiʻekiʻe loa.

11. Pehea e inject ai i ka Test e/cyp/prop/sus 250?

Pono e hoʻokomo ʻia i loko o ka ʻiʻo puʻupuʻu. ʻAʻole pono e hoʻokomo ʻia i loko o ka vein. E hahai i ka dosage kūpono e like me ka pōʻai āu e hahai nei. ʻO ka hoʻokomo ʻana i ka test e a i ʻole ka hoʻāʻo cyp he hana maʻalahi loa i ka wā i hana ai ʻoe i kekahi mau manawa me ke alakaʻi. Hoʻohana wale ʻia ʻo Testosterone prop/cyp/E ma ka injection, ʻo ia ke ala maikaʻi loa e loaʻa ai ka testosterone i kou kino. Me kahi injection, hiki iā ʻoe ke hōʻoia i ka hopena wikiwiki o kāu testosterone a maʻalahi iā ʻoe ke lanakila i nā hopena ʻaoʻao o ka testosterone haʻahaʻa.

12. Pehea ka nui o ka testosterone cypionate dosage no ka bulking a ʻokiʻoki paha?

Inā ʻoe e ʻimi nei e hoʻonui a loaʻa ka nui o ka ʻiʻo lean, a laila pono ʻoe e hoʻokomo i ka 200-600 mg o ka steroid i kēlā me kēia pule i ka liʻiliʻi o 2-3 injections. ʻO ka hapa nui o nā mea hoʻohana e hoʻolaha pinepine i kēia mau injections, no ka laʻana 100 mg i kēlā me kēia injection i ka lā hoʻokahi a me ʻelua, a laila 200 mg i kēlā me kēia lā i ka pule aʻe.

Inā ʻoe e hoʻāʻo nei e lilo i ka momona a hoʻomaikaʻi i ka wehewehe ʻana o kou kino, a laila hiki iā ʻoe ke ʻoki i hope ma ka Testosterone Cypionate dosage. Ma mua o ka hoʻopaʻa ʻana i ka hopena pule o 200-600mg, e hoʻāʻo e hoʻohana i ka 100-200 mg i kēlā me kēia pule. Inā hoʻolālā ʻoe e hoʻohana i ka steroid no nā kumu ʻelua, a laila e hoʻomaka me 200 mg i kēlā me kēia lā a hiki i 6 mau pule, a laila e hoʻāʻo e ʻoki i ka 100mg i kēlā me kēia lā.

13. Hiki i nā wāhine ke hoʻokomo i ka testosterone? Pehea ka pōʻaiapuni?

ʻO nā wāhine makemake e hoʻomaikaʻi i kā lākou hana kino a me ka nani, ʻaʻole makaʻu i ka hiki ke hoʻomohala i nā hōʻailona ʻaoʻao maikaʻi ʻole. No ka poʻe pāʻani, ua ʻōlelo ʻia kahi pōʻai solo o ka testosterone enanthate, ʻaʻole pono e ʻoi aku ma mua o nā wiki 8. Hāʻawi ʻia ka steroid anabolic i ka nui o 250mg i hoʻokahi pule. ʻO ka lāʻau lapaʻau ma hope no nā wahine he 21 mau lā. Hiki iāʻoe ke hana hou i ka laweʻana i ka testosterone ma mua o ka halaʻana o nā mahina 6, aia wale nō ma hope o ke kūkākūkāʻana i ke kauka a me ka hanaʻana i nā ho'āʻo kūpono. E koho maʻamau nā wahine iā Anavar, Primobolan a i ʻole Masteron e hoʻopaʻa pū me ka Test. E koho i ka mea kūpono iā ʻoe!

14. Pehea ka lōʻihi o ka hoʻāʻo propionate e hana?

Inā pilikia ʻoe i ka testosterone haʻahaʻa a me nā hopena ʻaoʻao e hele pū me ia, makemake paha ʻoe e ʻike i nā hopena o ka testosterone propionate injection treatments. Hiki ke hoʻomaopopo ʻia, ʻoiai ʻaʻole maʻalahi ka hana ʻana me ka testosterone haʻahaʻa. Inā ʻoe e noʻonoʻo nei e pili ana i ka wikiwiki o kāu mau inikini propionate testosterone e kiki i loko, ʻaʻole ʻoe wale nō. Makemake nā kānaka a pau e ʻike i ka wikiwiki e hiki ai iā lākou ke manaʻo i nā hopena mai kā lākou mālama ʻana.

Me ka testosterone propionate injections, hiki ke loli ka manawa pane o kou kino ma muli o nā kumu he nui. Hiki i kēia ke komo i kou mau makahiki a me nā kumu ʻē aʻe he nui.

Ma ka ʻōlelo maʻamau, hiki iā ʻoe ke manaʻo e hoʻomaka ka hopena o kāu testosterone propionate injections i loko o 3 mau pule. Eia nō naʻe, ʻo ke ahonui ke kī i ka wā e hoʻohana ai i nā injections testosterone ma ke ʻano he ʻano lapaʻau no ka testosterone haʻahaʻa. Hiki i ka Testosterone propionate injections ke piʻi i nā wiki 6 e hoʻomaka i ka hopena. E ʻoluʻolu e nānā i kā mākou ʻaoʻao TRT timeline no ka ʻike hou aku e pili ana i ka mea e manaʻo ʻia mai nā inikini testosterone.

Inā hopohopo ʻoe i ka wikiwiki o kāu mau inikini testosterone a i ʻole ka hopena i kou kūlana, a laila pono ʻoe e kamaʻilio me kāu kauka lapaʻau e nīnau e pili ana i ka pono o ka hoʻololi ʻana i kāu dosage a me ka pinepine.

15. He aha nā hopena testosterone enanthate ma mua a ma hope?

Duration Results
Ma hope o ʻelua pule ʻAʻohe loli nui a i ʻole nā ​​hopena i hōʻike ʻia.
Ma hope o hoʻokahi mahina Ua hoʻomaka ka loaʻa ʻana o ka ʻiʻo a me ka momona momona i ka mahina mua.
Ma hope o ʻelua mahina Hiki ke ʻike ʻia ka loaʻa ʻana o ka ʻiʻo ma hope o ʻelua mahina a me nā hopena ʻaoʻao pū kekahi no nā mea hoʻohana.
Ma hope o ʻekolu mahina I loko o ʻumikūmālua pule pono ʻoe e hoʻōki i kēia lāʻau no ka manawa hoʻomaha. Eia naʻe, i kēia manawa, ua kūkulu ʻoe i nā ʻiʻo koʻikoʻi.

16. Pono au i ka palapala kauoha e kūʻai i ka pauka hormone Testosterone?

ʻAe, inā ʻoe e ʻimi nei i ka Testosterone hormone pauka no nā kumu lāʻau lapaʻau, pono ʻoe i ke kauka. Inā ʻoe e hoʻohana ia mea no nā kumu lāʻau ʻole, hiki iā ʻoe ke kauoha mai ka mākeke ʻeleʻele ma ka pūnaewele me ke kānāwai ʻole, he nui nā steroid. nā mea hoʻolako pauka testosterone.

17. Aia nā pauka Testosterone esters maoli no ke kūʻai aku ma Kina?

E like me kā mākou e ʻike ai, ʻo kēlā mau testosterone esters powders, test e powder, test cyp powder, test prop powder, sus 250 pauka he mea kaulana loa ia i nā steroid anabolic i ka mākeke, a pono e loaʻa maʻalahi ma ka mākeke ʻeleʻele anabolic steroid me ka ʻole o ka hoʻoikaika ʻana. . he mea maʻamau a hana maʻalahi lākou e loaʻa ai no nā kumukūʻai kūpono loa. Loaʻa ka Testosterone Enanthate ma ke ʻano he mau huahana lāʻau lapaʻau kanaka, a me nā huahana papa lalo (UGL) ma ka mākeke. ʻIke ʻia nā ʻokoʻa ma ʻaneʻi, ʻo ka mana o ka maikaʻi ke kumu nui, a ʻoi aku ka nui o ke kumukūʻai o nā pauka testosterone papa lāʻau no nā kumu maopopo.

Ke hoʻoholo ʻoe e kūʻai i ka pauka testosterone ma ka pūnaewele, pono ʻoe e aʻo hou a loaʻa i nā mea hoʻolako hou aku, ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia me lākou. kōkua iā ʻoe e mālama i kekahi manawa, hiki ke loaʻa nā mea kūʻai kūpaʻa a ʻoi aku ka ʻoihana i ka wā e hiki mai ana. Ua hana ʻo AASraw i kēia ʻoihana no nā makahiki he nui a hiki iā ʻoe ke kamaʻilio me kā lākou kūʻai aku no nā kikoʻī hou aku, a nīnau paha kauoha laana no ka hoao ana i ka manawa mua.

18. Pehea kou manaʻo i nā huahana AASraw? (Kekahi mau loiloi no Test Cyp pauka, Test E pauka, Test P pauka a me Sus 250 pauka?)

Tommy (Malaki 4, 2021): ʻOliʻoli loa wau i ka hoʻomaka ʻana e hana solo Testosterone Prop cycles no ka mea ua lilo ia i hoʻokahi o nā steroids maikaʻi loa no ka ulu wikiwiki ʻana a me ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka ikaika. ʻO ka mea maikaʻi loa e pili ana i kēia anabolic steroid ʻo ia ka mea e hāʻawi mai iaʻu i ka hoʻoikaika i koʻu libido a me ka hoʻokele wahine.

Michel (ʻApelila 18, 2021): Ua kūʻai au i ka test cyp raw powder i ka mahina i hala a ʻo ka mea maikaʻi loa e pili ana i ia mea ʻo ia ke kōkua nui iaʻu e hoʻonui i koʻu hilinaʻi. Ua kōkua pū kēia steroid iaʻu e hoʻonui i ka nui o ka ʻiʻo lean a me ka hoʻomaikaʻi ʻana i kaʻu hana kino i ka hale haʻuki.

Mike (ʻAukake 16, 2020): ʻO ka pauka E Test kekahi o nā steroids maikaʻi loa no ka pohō kaumaha no ka mea kōkua maoli iaʻu e hoʻopau i ka momona o ke kino. Ua lilo au i ka nui o ke kaumaha aʻo ka loaʻa ʻana o ka nui o ka ʻiʻo lean ma hope o ka hana ʻana i nā pōʻai holoʻokoʻa testosterone propionate.

ʻO Jay cooper (Mei 12,2020): Ua hiki iaʻu ke hōʻemi i ka pākēneka o ka momona o ke kino, me ka hoʻohui pū ʻana i ka nui o ka ʻiʻo lean ma hope o ka hoʻokomo ʻana i ka ʻaila Sus 250. Ua kōkua kēia steroid iaʻu e hoʻokō i kaʻu mau pahuhopu hoʻoikaika kino ma ka hale haʻuki no ka mea e hoʻonui maoli i koʻu ikaika a me nā pae hoʻomanawanui.

Austin (Iune 17,2021): Mahalo nui wau i koʻu koho ʻana i ka aasraw a loaʻa ka hoʻāʻo maoli e ka pauka i koʻu manawa mua e kūʻai ai i ka pauka testosterone enanthate mai Kina, ua kūleʻa. Makemake au i ka hana ʻana i nā pōʻai testosterone propionate a laila hana i kahi PCT no ka mea kōkua iaʻu e mālama i koʻu ikaika a hoʻomaikaʻi i koʻu ʻiʻo ʻiʻo lean. He kūpono kēia steroid no ka loaʻa ʻana o ka nui a me ka ikaika i ka hale haʻuki, ʻoiai e kōkua pū ana iaʻu e mālama i ka hana kino maikaʻi.

Reference

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[3] Bailey AA, Hurd PL (Malaki 2005). "Hoʻopili ka ratio lōʻihi o ka manamana lima (2D: 4D) me ka huhū kino i nā kāne akā ʻaʻole i nā wahine". Hoʻonaʻauao olaola. 68 (3): 215–22. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2004.05.001.

[4] Meinhardt U, Mullis PE (ʻAukake 2002). "ʻO ke kuleana koʻikoʻi o ka aromatase/p450arom". Nā Seminā i ka Lapaʻau Reproductive. 20 (3): 277–84. doi:10.1055/s-2002-35374. PMID 12428207.

[5] Waterman MR, Keeney DS (1992). "Nā Genes i komo i ka biosynthesis androgen a me ka phenotype kāne". Noiʻi Hormone. 38 (5–6): 217–21.

[6] De Loof A (ʻOkakopa 2006). "Ecdysteroids: ka mea i nānā ʻole ʻia i nā steroid sex o nā iniseti? Nā kāne: ka pahu ʻeleʻele”. ʻEpekema Insect. 13 (5): 325–338. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7917.2006.00101.x. S2CID 221810929.

[7] Guerriero G (2009). "Vertebrate sex steroid receptors: evolution, ligands, and neurodistribution". Nā moʻolelo o ka New York Academy of Sciences. 1163 (1): 154–68.

Hāʻawi ʻo AASraw i nā huahana kiʻekiʻe me ka hoʻouna palekana.Welcome e launa pū me mākou koke!